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Canada and World War II


Canadian Men and Women

Web Image
Young World War II airman looking out from a combat aircraft

In 1939, much of Canada was still suffering from the effects of Great Depression of 1929. Ten years later -- still hanging on. Many young men and women were excited to enlist. It was opportunity. It was excitement. They wanted to do their part for "God and Country".

But, sadly for far to many, it was the last thing they did. The war cut their lives far too short.

Click on Edward James Wright below. "Teddy" was just 16 years old when he was Killed in a Flying Accident just 8 days before the end of the war. VE Day (Victory in Europe) was May 8 1945.

Also, review Pamela Gladys Bennett who was killed on active duty on July 13, 1945. Hostilities in Europe had ceased on May 8, 1945 but were still ongoing in the Pacific Theatre of War. So Canada's military on the west coast of Canada were still very active. VJ Day (Victory in Japan) did not come until one month later on August 15, 1945. Japan surrendered after the American nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945.

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RCAF Women's Division, being inspected at Linton on Ouse or Leeming in the UK by His Majesty King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (the Queen Mother). Princess Elizabeth and several notable RCAF Officers including Air Commodore Fauquier and Air Vice Marashall McEwan were also in the group. An RCAF Handley Page Halifax is in the background, during the Royal visit, 11 Aug 1944. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4047092)
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Corporal RF Neid on a Universal Carrier between Nessaria and Agira in Sicily, July 1943.

Air War Casualties: Start Here (2)

428 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIFA
1945‑04‑30
Winnipeg, Manitoba
11 Sqn (RCAF)
KIFA
1945‑07‑13
Victoria, British Columbia

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

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Cessna Crane trainer on display at Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum

During WW II Canada built training facilities all across Canada and graduated over 130,000 air crew and over 80,000 ground crew. Young highly skilled men were sent to employ the highest technology available against the enemy.

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BCATP Training Chart, from the Airman's Post, Brandon Manitoba, November 1942

Canada Source The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

YouTube British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (Pathe) 0:53

YouTube BCATP Haldimand Region 0:58

Vimeo Voices From the Past: The Plan (44:39)

Air War Casualties: British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (1688)

31 SFTS (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑06‑09
Paisley Scotland UK
5 SFTS (RCAF)
Died
1941‑10‑03
Toronto, Ontario
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑04‑29
Ottawa, Ontario
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑05‑17
Toronto, Ontario
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑05‑17
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑05‑17
Windsor, Ontario
5 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑08‑20
Hardisty, Alberta
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑09‑02
Toronto, Ontario
2 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑09‑27
St John, New Brunswick
2 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑09‑27
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑10‑06
Edmonton, Alberta
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑10‑06
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑10‑30
Winnipeg, Manitoba
11 EFTS (RCAF)
KIVA
1940‑11‑05
2 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑07
Toledo, Ohio, USA (parents)
1 BGS (RCAF)
Died
1940‑11‑08
Cornwall, Ontario
2 SFTS (RCAF)
Died
1940‑11‑16
Tavistock, Ontario
5 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑16
Calgary, Alberta
5 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑16
Edmonton, Alberta
1 BGS (RCAF)
KIFLA
1940‑11‑19
Westmount, Quebec
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑19
St Catharines, Ontario
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑19
Ottawa, Ontario
2 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑22
London, Ontario
2 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑22
St Catharines, Ontario
9 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑23
Fonthill, Ontario
9 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑23
Waterloo, Ontario
3 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑25
Montreal, Quebec
3 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑11‑25
South Orange, New Jersey, USA
1 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑05
Moy, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland
31 ANS (RAF)
Drowned
1940‑12‑07
31 ANS (RAF)
Drowned
1940‑12‑07
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑07
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan
4 BGS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑08
Oshawa, Ontario
4 BGS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑08
Adrian, Michigan, USA
4 BGS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑08
Minaki, Ontario
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑12
Cabri, Saskatchewan
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑13
Edmonton, Alberta
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑13
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑13
1 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑13
Guelph, Ontario
6 SFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑14
Westmount, Quebec
1 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑21
Canning, Kings County, Nova Scotia
1 EFTS (RCAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑21
Horning's Mills, Ontario
3 SFTS (RCAF)
Died
1940‑12‑25
Viceroy, Saskatchewan
31 SFTS (RAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑30
Toronto, Ontario
31 SFTS (RAF)
KIFA
1940‑12‑30
Waterloo, Ontario
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1941‑01‑06
Toronto, Ontario
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1941‑01‑06
Niagara Falls, Ontario
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1941‑01‑06
Ottawa, Ontario
1 ANS (RCAF)
KIFA
1941‑01‑06
Winnipeg, Manitoba


Trans-Atlantic Aircraft Ferrying

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Joe Wilson farmer near Emerson Manitoba hauls a Lockheed Hudson bomber across the border at Pembina circa February 1940. The horses are Prince and Fred.

From the beginning of the war in 1939, Canada was instrumental in acquiring aircraft from the USA and transporting them to Britain for use in the European War. Before December 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbour), the USA was trying to remain neutral and would not ship aircraft to a combatant country under the terms of the Neutrality Act of 1939.

So, a "technical compliance" mechanism was created. Lockheed is a manufacturer of military aircraft. In late 1939, Lockheed built an airport just outside of Pembina North Dakota, right on the Canadian border. The USA could not deliver military aircraft to a combatant nation, that is Canada, but they could deliver them to the airport in Pembina North Dakota USA, and Canadian workers could pull them across the border into Canada -- fully compliant with the Neutrality Act.

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Current Google Map of Emerson / Pembina

General Canadian Aviation Historical Society

Web Image
Deparkes at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0 , via Wikimedia Commons

Trans-Atlantic Ferrying of Aircraft was coordinated from Montreal by Canadian Pacific Limited. This function was immensely important as previously aircraft were shipped by ocean vessel which was complicated, required disassembling of aircraft, slow, and subject to loss in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Transatlantic flight came of age under Canadian leadership in the 1940's.

Wkikpedia North Atlantic Aircraft Ferrying

Air War Casualties: Ferry Command & Trans-Atlantic (421)

 ATFERO (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑02‑21
Toronto, Ontario
 ATFERO (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑02‑20
Kidderminster, Worcestershire
 ATFERO (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑02‑20
Bedford, Nova Scotia
 ATFERO (RAF)
Survived
1982‑02‑14
Kansas City, Kansas, USA
 OADF (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑07‑25
Kindersley, Saskatchewan
 OADF (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑07‑25
New Westminster British Columbia
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑03
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑03
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Toronto, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
New Westminster, British Columbia
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Ottawa, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Lethbridge, Alberta
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Markham, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Toronto, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Montreal, Quebec
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Toronto, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Winthrop, Massachusetts
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Little Rock, Arkansas
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Lawrence, Kansas
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Wheeler, Texas, USA
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Geelong, Victoria, Australia
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Uplands, Bristol, England
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Earl's Court, London, England
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Felinfoel, Llanelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Roslyn Heights, New Jersey
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑10
Kansas City, Missouri, USA
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Port Arthur, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Toronto, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Toronto, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Port Arthur, Ontario
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Canada
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Merrick, Long Island, New York
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Montreal Quebec, Canada
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Kansas, USA
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
West Virginia
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Grand Rapids, Michigan
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Urbana, Maryland
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
St Andrews, Fife, Scotland
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Texas, USA
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Santa Monica, California
 Ferry Command (RAF)
KIFA
1941‑08‑14
Monroe, New Jersey


Overview - Battle of the Atlantic

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"VC Attack" by Graham Wragg illustrates Flight Lieutenant David Hornell's valiant attack on a U-Boat 1225 during the Battle of the Atlantic. PHOTO: DND

The battle of the Atlantic was a naval-naval and air-naval battle. It was Germany's goal to blockade Britain, which was receiving massive supplies of food fuel and weapons from Canada and the USA. The U-boats were attacking Merchant Navy Convoys and they were being defended by escort Naval ships (Destroyers and Corvettes) as well as air support from flying boats such as Canso/Catalinas. Later in the war B24 Liberators were used as long range patrol bombers.

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Convoy in Bedford Basin, Halifax, April 1, 1942. National Archives of Canada, PA-112993.

As a small island country, the United Kingdom was highly dependent on imported goods. Britain required more than a million tons of imported material per week in order to survive and fight. In essence, the Battle of the Atlantic involved a tonnage war: the Allied struggle to supply Britain and the Axis attempt to stem the flow of merchant shipping that enabled Britain to keep fighting.

Various petroleum products, primarily gasoline were required for the war effort. Britain produced ZERO fuel. 6 billion barrels of petroleum product were shipped from the USA via convoys. (159 litres in a barrel)

From 1942 onward the Axis also sought to prevent the build-up of Allied supplies and equipment in the British Isles in preparation for the invasion of occupied Europe. The defeat of the U-boat threat was a prerequisite for pushing back the Axis in Western Europe. The outcome of the battle was a strategic victory for the Allies—the German blockade failed—but at great cost: 3,500 merchant ships and 175 warships were sunk in the Atlantic for the loss of 783 U-boats (the majority of them Type VII submarines) and 47 German surface warships, including 4 battleships (Bismarck, Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Tirpitz), 9 cruisers, 7 raiders, and 27 destroyers. Of the U-boats, 519 were sunk by British, Canadian, or other allied forces, while 175 were destroyed by American forces; 15 were destroyed by the Soviets and 73 were scuttled by their crews before the end of the war for various reasons. Wikipedia: Battle of the Atlantic

Canada Source Battle of the Atlantic (Canadian Encyclopedia)

YouTube Battle of the Atlantic: Timeline Series

Museum Battle of the Atlantic Article

Bletchley Park

Bletchley Park was an ultra secret operation whose purpose was to decode the messages created by the German Enigma machine. Some of the greatest minds in Britain were employed at Bletchley Park. The most famous was Alan Turing.

YouTube Battle of the Atlantic (Bletchley Park)

YouTube The Enigma Machine

Museum Codebreaking and the Battle of the Atlantic

Movies

Although it is a fictional American film, it is an excellent portrayal of real events. It is the story of the mid-Atlantic gap (the Black Pit), where there was no air cover for the convoys. The convoys typically had air cover from Yarmouth Nova Scotia, Reykjavík Iceland and John-o-Groats in Scotland. But, there was still a gap. It also references "Dicky", a Royal Canadian Navy Flower-class corvette, HMCS Dodge, call sign "Dicky".

USA Source Greyhound Trailer (Youtube)

Museum The True Story Behind Greyhound (Smithsonian Magazine)

General Uboat Losses 1942 (Year of Greyhound Movie)

🍁 indicates airmen of specific interest. They are not more important than other deaths, but do serve to illustrate an aspect of the conflict.

Air War Casualties: Battle of the Atlantic (178)

  (RCAF)
KIA
1943‑04‑22
Pine Valley, San Diego County, California, USA
162 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑25
Mimico, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1940‑04‑20
Belleville, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1940‑07‑15
South March, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1940‑07‑15
Outremont, Quebec
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1940‑11‑17
New Westminster, British Columbia
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1940‑11‑17
Aylesford, Nova Scotia
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1940‑11‑17
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑06‑03
Toronto, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑06‑03
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑06‑03
Rush Lake, Saskatchewan
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑06‑03
Paradise, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑06‑03
Ottawa, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑07‑26
Toronto, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑07‑26
Calgary, Alberta
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑07‑26
Turnbridge Wells, Kent, England
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑07‑26
Flat Lands, New Brunswick
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑07‑26
Winnipeg, Manitoba
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑07‑26
Regina, Saskatchewan
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑12‑29
Ottawa, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑12‑29
Montreal, Quebec
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑12‑29
Hanover, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑12‑29
Drexel Hul, Pennsylvania, USA
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑12‑29
Toronto, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1941‑12‑29
Peterborough, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
Wroxeter, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
Bowmanville, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
Lonoke, Arkansas, USA
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
Hespeler, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
Harold, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
Seattle, Washington, USA
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
St Thomas, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑05‑06
St Joseph, New Brunswick
113 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑06‑01
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island
113 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑06‑01
Elkhorn, Manitoba
113 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑06‑01
Winnipeg, Manitoba
113 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑06‑01
Ryerson, Saskatchewan
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑07‑10
Bedford, Quebec
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑07‑10
Bright, Ontario
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑07‑10
Oak River, Manitoba
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑07‑10
Vancouver, British Columbia
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑07‑10
Chicago, Illinois, USA
10 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑07‑10
Winnipeg, Manitoba
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑09‑25
Brantford, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑09‑25
Toronto, Ontario
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑09‑25
Victoria, British Columbia
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑09‑25
Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑09‑25
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Edmonton, Alberta
11 (BR) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Vancouver, British Columbia

Questions for David Hornell VC

  1. The Battle of the Atlantic lasted from 1939 until 1945 and Canadians had a very important role in it. Why was the North Atlantic such an important area of the ocean for the Allies and especially Great Britain in World War II?
  2. U-boats
    1. What were U-boats?
    2. What critical role did U-boats have in the War?
    3. Why was it so important for the Allies to destroy as many U-boats as they could?
    4. In June, 1944, the month when David Hornell flew his critical mission how many U-boats were sunk in the Atlantic Ocean?
    5. What were the top three causes of these boats being sunk?
  3. Message Encryption
    1. What was the Enigma Machine?
    2. What was the main purpose of this machine?
    3. Why was it so important for the Allies to break the enigma code?
  4. David Hornell
    1. Where was David from in Canada?
    2. How old was he when he signed up in 1941 and how old was he when he died?
  5. What was his training to prepare him for World War II?
  6. On the night of June 24, 1944, what was the main mission of David Hornell and his fellow crew as they flew their Canso Aircraft?
    1. Explain in detail what happened in the attack.
    2. If you were the pilot of the plane, would you have done the same as David Hornell did? What would you have done that would be different from Hornell?
  7. Outline the series of events that took place after the Canso’s attack.
  8. Imagine you were one of the crew on the Canso aircraft that survived. Write a letter to a good friend dated August 24, 1944, to explain what you were thinking and how you felt once the whole ordeal was over.
  9. Compare to operations today
    1. If this mission had taken place today, what do you think would have been different in terms of the rescue?
    2. If the rescue had been launched today, do you think there would be more survivors from the Canso aircraft? Explain your reasoning.
  10. D. S. Scott was a member of the Canso aircraft crew.
    1. What happened to him after the attack?
    2. What do you think would have been going through his mind just before the end?
  11. In your opinion was David Hornell a hero? Explain your reasoning.

Battle of the St Lawrence

Web Image
Merchant and Military attacks by German U-Boats Royal Canadian Navy

A little told story is that German U-Boats patrolled Canadian waters from 1940 until 1945. They were a hostile enemy.

German U-boats sank over 20 merchant ships and four Canadian warships. There were several near-shore actions involving the drop of German spies, or the attempted pickup of escaping prisoners of war. Despite the 23 ships lost, this battle marked a strategic victory for Canadian forces as ultimately they managed to disrupt U-boat activity, protect Canadian and Allied convoys, and intercept all attempted shore operations. This marked the first time that a foreign power had inflicted casualties in Canadian inland waters since the US incursions in the War of 1812. Wikipedia

Web Image
German u-boat U-190 arrives in St. John's, Newfoundland in June 1945 after surrendering

German U-boats roamed free in the North Atlantic early in WW II. The U-boats sunk merchant ships in the St Lawrence River as well as a ferry travelling from North Sydney, Cape Breton to Port-aux-Basque Newfoundland. This was the battle of the St Lawrence.

Sinking of the SS Caribou

Headline: U-Boat Torpedoes NS-Newfoundland Ferry Steamer With Loss of 117 Lives Including 16 Women 14 Children 101 Passengers and Crew Saved by Canadian Naval Craft Montreal Gazette October 17 1943

On the 14th October 1942, SS CARIBOU, on voyage from North Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada to Port aux Basques, Newfoundland with passengers, was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-69, 25 miles south of Port Aux Basques off Cabot Strait. 136 people died.

Story: CARIBOU (Capt. Taverner) was torpedoed by U-69 (Kapitanleutnant Ulrich Graf) while in convoy NL-9, on her regular run between Cape Breton and Newfoundland. Her escort, the minesweeper HMCS GRANDMERE had only short range asdic (sonar detection) and no radar. GRANDMERE did not detect the submarine but sighted it after the attack, giving chase with depth charges as the submarine dove.

U-69's torpedo struck at 2:21 am hitting CARIBOU's boilers. The explosion was very violent and the CARIBOU was ripped in two pieces. She sank in 5 minutes. Survivors were left in overcrowded lifeboats and clinging to wreckage until dawn when GRANDMERE returned from its unsuccessful hunt for U-69. Only 101 of the 237 people aboard survived. 31 crew, 57 military and 48 passengers died.

Part of the passengers on board were women and children, who were heading to Nova Scotia to welcome a contingent of RCN sailors home from overseas. The sinking caused alarm in the Canadian and Newfoundland public about the vulnerability of the St. Lawrence to submarine attack. reference: wrecksite.eu

Canada Source Sinking of the SS Caribou

Canada Source CBC Archives

General Uboat.net Details

Air War Casualties: Battle of the St Lawrence (18)

2 FIS (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑10‑14
North Vancouver, British Columbia
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Timmins, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Toronto, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Toronto, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Oshawa, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Carbonear, Newfoundland
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Port Hammond, British Columbia
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
St Mary's Road, Prince Edward Island
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Fredericton, New Brunswick
  (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Montreal, Quebec
  (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Waskatenau, Alberta
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Perth Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Hamilton, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Winnipeg, Manitoba
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
St Catharines, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Toronto, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Hamilton, Ontario
 
KIA
1942‑10‑14
Cartyville, Newfoundland

Operation Jubilee - Dieppe Raid

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3 Wheel Enigma. The Dieppe Raid was the greatest military disaster in Canadian History. Historians are divided on its purpose but one influential Canadian historian believes the purpose was to capture a new 4 wheel Enigma Machine.

The Dieppe Raid was the most unsuccessful military operation in Canadian History.

YouTube Dieppe Uncovered by David O'Keefe

General Project 44 Dieppe Raid Timeline

General Combined Operations - Dieppe

Lots more to follow.

Air War Casualties: Operation Jubilee (12)

88 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Rutland, Vermont, USA
226 Sqn
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Quebec City, Quebec
418 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Toronto, Ontario
3 (NF) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Poplar Grove, Prince Edward Island
400 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Petersfield, Manitoba
66 Sqn
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
403 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
403 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Ottawa, Ontario
411 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Minnedosa, Manitoba
401 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Fonthill, Ontario
412 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Magog, Quebec
403 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1942‑08‑19
Hamilton, Ontario

D-Day June 6, 1944 & Battle of Normandy

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Canadian troops wading ashore on Juno Beach -- June 6 1944

On June 6, 1944 the Allies invaded "Fortress Europe" by successfully landing 156,000 men and all associated equipment on the beaches in Normandy. There were five landing beaches. British: Gold and Sword Beach, Canadians: Juno Beach and USA: Omaha and Utah Beach. The fighting was very hard and the objectives that were hoped for on that day were not taken for a week. However, it was beginning of the end for the occupying German forces, and by December 1944, The Allies had pushed back all the way to Germany.

YouTube D-Day: Juno Beach 1:01

YouTube D-Day: Archie McNaughton 1:00

Air War Casualties: D-Day & the Battle of Normandy (50)

419 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑13
Winnipeg, Manitoba
419 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
Evader
1944‑06‑13
Port Arthur, Ontario
243 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑05
Humboldt, Saskatchewan
439 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑05
Vancouver, British Columbia
5158 T (Comm) MSU (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Winona, Ontario
233 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Niagara Falls, Ontario
233 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Montreal, Quebec
426 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Winnipeg,Manitoba
426 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Kamloops, British Columbia
426 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Peterborough, Ontario
426 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Goderich, Ontario
426 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Dunblane, Saskatchewan
426 (B) Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Dublin, Ireland
97 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Hamilton, Ontario
97 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Summerland, British Columbia
582 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Niagara Falls, Ontario
430 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Brockville, Ontario
253 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Montreal, Quebec
620 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Toronto, Ontario
620 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Macdonald,Manitoba
620 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Brantford, Ontario
440 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Schenectady, New York, USA
183 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Bell Island, Conception Bay, Newfoundland
183 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑06
Winnipeg, Manitoba
127 Wing (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Bothwell,Ontario (parents)
127 Wing (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Weston, Ontario
127 Wing (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
New Westminster, British Columbia
127 Wing (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Selby, Ontario
271 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑07
St Boniface, Manitoba
271 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Vancouver, British Columbia
9 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
9 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Parkchester, New York, USA
9 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Ayr, Ayrshire, United Kingdom
9 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Southhampton, United Kingdom
9 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
9 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
South Woodford, United Kingdom
576 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Caledonia, Ontario
576 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Port St Nicoll, Ontario
576 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Brandon, Manitoba
19 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Little Falls, Minnesota, USA
421 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Regina, Saskatchewan
401 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
London, Ontario
421 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Sault Ste Marie, Ontario
299 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑07
St Sylvestre, Quebec
299 (B) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Isabella, Manitoba (parents)
299 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Hamilton, Ontario
299 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Toronto, Ontario
440 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Port Colborne, Ontario
263 Sqn
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Ste Agathe Des Monts, Quebec
440 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑06‑07
Edmonton, Alberta


Canada and The Netherlands

Web Image
The Canadian Christmas Vigils: CANDLES LIT in GROESBEEK & HOLTEN. Every Christmas Eve, local school children come to Holten & Groesbeek Canadian Military Cemeteries in the Netherlands to light a candle in honour of every soldier laid to rest. The act is both humbling and beautiful, as well as a reminder to be grateful for the peace we enjoy today.

YouTube Invasion by Nazi Germany May 1940

The Netherlands (much older English texts refers to the country Holland) was invaded by Germany in May 1940. The take-over was swift.

The Princess Comes to Canada

The Netherlands has a monarchy. Queen Wilhemena went to London UK for the balance of the war. But, because of the Blitz, she felt that her children unsafe and they were sent to Canada.

Canada Source The Dutch Royal Family in Canada

Birth in Ottawa

News that Princess Juliana was expecting her third child was broadcast in the autumn of 1942. In hiding with her family in Amsterdam, Anne Frank wrote in her diary on 21 September, “I sometimes listen to the Dutch broadcasts from London. Prince Bernhard recently announced that Princess Juliana is expecting a baby in January, which I think is wonderful. No one here understands why I take such an interest in the Royal Family.” In his radio broadcasts, Bernhard warned the Dutch against celebrating openly while still under occupation.

If the baby was a boy, he would be next in line to the Dutch throne after his mother, Crown Princess Juliana. The Earl of Athlone therefore decreed that the maternity ward at the Ottawa Civic Hospital would be declared extraterritorial for the birth, ensuring that the baby would have Dutch citizenship alone. Four rooms were set aside at the Ottawa Civic Hospital for Juliana, the baby, the nurse and the security team.

Margriet was named for the daisies worn by members of the Dutch resistance. Queen Wilhelmina stated in a radio broadcast, “It is the intention of the parents through their choice of a name to establish a lifelong bond between our grievously tried people in the occupied part of the kingdom and the newly born.” Juliana told her husband, “I’m really glad it’s a girl. If it had been a son, perhaps there would have been too much excitement in Holland and even victims. Now, I can breathe easier.”

Margriet’s birth prompted widespread rejoicing. F.E.H. Groenman, the Dutch minister to Canada stated at a reception that he hosted, “For us, 1943 is the year of our rising hope.” In honour of her birth, the Dutch flag flew from Ottawa’s Peace Tower (the first time a foreign flag was flown alone from the Parliament Buildings) and the bells played the Dutch national anthem.

Margriet’s christening took place at St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church in Ottawa on 29 June 1943. Crowds outside the church applauded the arrival of the Earl and Countess of Athlone with the baby’s grandmother, Queen Wilhelmina. The Earl of Athlone, American president Franklin Roosevelt, and members of the Dutch merchant marine were among her godparents. With the arrival of a third daughter, Juliana and her children moved into a larger residence, Stornoway in Rockcliffe Park, which is now the residence of the leader of the official opposition, where they lived for the remainder of the Second World War. The Canadian Encyclopedia

General Princess Margriet 2020

Battle of the Scheldt Estuary

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Buffalos coming ashore on the river Ijssel with members of the Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, 13 April 1945. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3199041)

The Battle of the Scheldt in World War II was a series of military operations led by the First Canadian Army, with Polish and British units attached, to open up the shipping route to Antwerp so that its port could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe. Under acting command of the First Canadian's Lieutenant-General Guy Simonds, the battle took place in northern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands from 2 October to 8 November 1944. Wikipedia

The dikes on Walcheren Island and in other locations were deliberately breached to flood the German occupied territories along the Scheldt Estuary. Because the terrain is low, wet and muddy, the Canadians used Buffalos to cross the shallow wet areas, rather than cross the heavily defended bridges in order to take back the territory.

Wkikpedia Battle of the Scheldt

YouTube Netflix: The Forgotten Battle

YouTube Battle for the Scheldt Documentary (Dutch with English subtitles) 54:10

Web Image
Operations Map October / November 1944

YouTube Liberation by Canadians

Operation Mana (Americans called it Chow Hound)

Web Image
Operation Mana Over Rotterdam

When the Germans retreated from Netherlands, they took all food and all livestock. The Dutch people were starving. Some starved to death, but relief came in the form of bombers converted to drop food instead of bombs. Hundreds of thousands were saved from starvation.

Anne Frank

Web Image

Please read "The Diary of Anne Frank". It tells the story of a young Jewish girl who died in a concentration camp in February 1945 at the age of 15. At the beginning of the war Netherlands had approximately 140,000 Jews. Over 100,000 were killed in Nazi extermination camps. Anne hid and escaped the roundup by hiding in an attic from 1942 to 1944. In February 1945 she died of Typhoid in Bergen-Belsen in February 1945. Anne and her sister's memorial is (click here)

YouTube Who was Anne Frank?

YouTube Children placing candles at Canadian Graves at Groesbeek Netherlands

Tulips in Ottawa

Web Image
Tulips 2019

Upon returning to the Netherlands, Princess Juliana sought to thank Ottawa and the Canadian people with several gifts, including 100,000 tulip bulbs. Since then, the Dutch royal family has sent tulip bulbs to Canada’s capital each year – a lasting gift known as the “Tulip Legacy”. This gift of friendship symbolizes the relationship between Canada and the Netherlands. The tulip was designated Ottawa’s official flower in 2001.

🍁 indicates airmen buried at Groesbeek.

Air War Casualties: Scheldt & Liberation of Netherlands (29)

401 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑02
Toronto, Ontario
127 Wing
KIA
1944‑10‑06
Montreal, Quebec
430 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑11
Hamilton, Ontario
6416 SE
KIA
1944‑10‑12
Mawer, Saskatchewan
127 Wing
KIA
1944‑10‑12
Winnipeg, Manitoba
6416 SE
KIA
1944‑10‑12
Humberstone, Ontario
6416 SE
KIA
1944‑10‑12
Toronto, Ontario
6416 SE
KIA
1944‑10‑12
Hardisty, Alberta
226 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑28
Toronto, Ontario
439 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑11‑03
Glace Bay, Nova Scotia
226 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑11‑04
Kingston, Ontario
226 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑11‑04
Toronto, Ontario
197 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑05
Weston, Ontario
298 (SD) Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑15
Blackfalds, Alberta
440 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑20
La Salle, Ontario
6416 SE
KIA
1944‑10‑21
Rosalind, Alberta
175 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑24
Montreal, Quebec
439 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑28
Shellbrook, Saskatchewan
411 Sqn (RCAF)
KIA
1944‑10‑29
Thomaston, Georgia, USA
627 Sqn
KIA
1944‑10‑30
Hamilton, Ontario
15 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑11‑02
Calgary, Alberta
198 Sqn
KIA
1944‑11‑05
Tisdale, Saskatchewan
190 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑11‑06
Selkirk, Manitoba
190 Sqn (RAF)
KIA
1944‑11‑06
Aylmer, Quebec
1 BSU
KIA
1944‑11‑07
Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan
1 BSU
KIA
1944‑11‑07
Forest, Ontario
1 BSU
KIA
1944‑11‑07
Vancouver, British Columbia
1 BSU
KIA
1944‑11‑07
Kingston, Ontario
1 BSU
KIA
1944‑11‑07
Swift Current, Saskatchewan


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